Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Introduction: Pharmaceutical Process

  •  Raw material and it’s classification
  •  Testing
  •  Procurement
  •  Importance of pharmaceutical chemicals
  •  Processing of pharmaceutical products
  • Equipments

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Pharmaceutical Supply Chain : Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

*Pharmaceutical Raw Products:

Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Raw materials (Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry)

Pharmaceutical raw materials are substances, chemicals, extracts, etc, which are used for manufacturing different types of drugs, for example, anti-infective drugs viz. penicillin, ampicillin, cephradine etc. 

Source:

  • Natural – as in the case of vegetable ingredients like Phytopharmaka
  • Synthetic – artificially manufactured through regulated chemical processes

Recently, many of the raw materials previously derived from natural sources are being produced synthetically in part or even bio-technologically. This is so because manufacturing them artificially is economical, safer, and much quicker.

Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
source (Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry)

Pharmaceutical raw materials are manufactured using different types of acids, alcohols, esters, phenones, pyridines, etc.

Types of Pharmaceutical Raw Products

Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

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Types of Pharmaceutical Raw Materials :

  • Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API)
  • Excipients

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API): Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), also known as bulk active, are portions of any drug which are pharmaceutically active, and have the desired pharmacological effects on the body.

Excipients are the pharmaceutically inert substances which help in delivering the active ingredient.

Ø Thus, an excipient is an inactive substance formulated alongside the active ingredient (“API”) of a medication

Ø This refers to the substance inside the drug or tablet. If it is in syrup form, then the excipient will be the liquid that has been used.

Excipients – Purposes:

Formulation of API with excipients is mainly to ensure:

      i.an efficacious drug product with desired properties and a robust manufacturing process

      ii.Consistency of drug release and bioavailability

      iii.Stability including protection from degradation

      iv.Ease of administration to the target patient population(s) by the intended route

The resultant biological, chemical and physical properties of the drug product are directly affected by the excipients chosen, their concentration and interactions with the API.

Excipients – Classification:

 Excipients can be  classified  on  the  basis  of  their origin,  use  in  dosage  form,  and  functions  they perform.

Excipients may be classified into the following categories based on their functions:

  • Antiadherents
  • Binders
  • Disintegrants
  • Fillers and Diluents
  • Coloring Agents
  • Glidants
  • Lubricants
  • Preservatives
  • Sorbents
  • Sweeteners

APIs may be classified into the following categories based on their therapeutic activity:

  • Antipyretics
  • Analgesics
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibiotics
  • Antimalarial drugs
  • Antiseptics
  • Antiarrhythmic agents
  • Antidiabetics
  • Antineoplastic drugs
  • Antiulcer drugs
  • Antihistamines
  • Antivirals
  • Anti-asthmatic drugs
  • ACE inhibitors

APIs may also be classified into the following categories:

  • Inorganic substances
  • Organic  substances  (isolated  from  materials  of  animal  or  human origin)
  • Organic  substances  (synthetic  or  semi-synthetic  or  isolated  from herbal sources or micro-organisms)
  • Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

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