What is Enzyme And How Dose It Works?
What is Enzyme?
Enzymes are the most remarkable and highly specialized proteins that act as catalysts for biological reactions. Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate, or catalyze, chemical reactions. Enzymes have unique three-dimensional shapes that fit the shapes of substrates.
- They have a high degree of specificity for their substrates,
- They accelerate chemical reactions tremendously, and
- They function in aqueous solutions under very mild conditions of temperature and pH
How Dose Enzymes are really look like?
The molecules that an enzyme works with are called substrates.
The substrates bind to a region on the enzyme called the active site.
How does enzyme work?
Enzymes are biological molecules (typically proteins) that significantly speed up the rate of virtually all of the chemical reactions that take place within cells. They are vital for life and serve a wide range of important functions in the body, such as aiding in digestion and metabolism.
Some enzymes help break large molecules into smaller pieces that are more easily absorbed by the body. Other enzymes help bind two molecules together to produce a new molecule. Enzymes are highly selective catalysts, meaning that each enzyme only speeds up a specific reaction.
Sufficient energy means that between them they have enough energy to overcome the energy barrier to reaction. This is called the activation energy.
An enzyme-catalysed reaction takes a different ‘route’. The enzyme and substrate form a reaction intermediate. Its formation has a lower activation energy than the reaction between reactants without a catalyst.
A simplified picture
Route A reactant 1 + reactant 2 –> product
Route B reactant 1 + enzyme –> intermediate
intermediate + reactant 2 –> product + enzyme
So the enzyme is used to form a reaction intermediate, but when this reacts with another reactant the enzyme reforms.
- Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by lowering the energy of activation.
- Enzymes do not affect the change in free energy (∆G); instead, they hasten reactions that would occur eventually.
- Enzymes are neither consumed nor permanently altered as a consequence of their participation in a reaction.
The lock-and-key theory:
In the lock-and-key model, the active site of an enzyme is precisely shaped to hold specific substrates. In the induced-fit model, the active site and substrate don’t fit perfectly together; instead, they both alter their shape to connect.
Whatever the case, the reactions that occur accelerate greatly — over a millionfold — once the substrates bind to the active site of the enzyme. The chemical reactions result in a new product or molecule that then separates from the enzyme, which goes on to catalyze other reactions.
Here’s an example:
When the salivary enzyme amylase binds to a starch, it catalyzes hydrolysis (the breakdown of a compound due to a reaction with water), resulting in maltose, or malt sugar.