Enzymes in the Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

Enzymes in the Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation process is controlled by the Enzymes. Enzymes play a great role in the Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation process.

  • Phosphorylation reactions are catalyzed by a family of enzymes called protein kinases that use adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a phosphate donor.
  • Phosphate groups are cleaved from phosphorylated enzymes by the action of phosphoprotein phosphatases
  • Amino acids with –OH groups are targets for phosphorylation.

Enzymes in the Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation

A significant instance of phosphorylation regulation is seen in muscle and liver glycogen phosphorylase that catalyzes the following response

Glycogen phosphorylase occurs in two forms:

  • the more active phosphorylase a and
  • the less active phosphorylase b.

The breakdown of glycogen is regulated by variations in the ratio of the two forms of glycogen phosphorylase a and b.

How can enzyme activity be controlled by phosphorylation?

−Phosphorylation relates to a phosphate being added to one of a protein’s amino acid side chains.

−Phosphates are charged negatively (with each phosphate group carrying two adverse charges) to alter the protein’s features by adding them to a protein.

−This shift is often a conformational change, which causes the protein to shift its structure.

Change in enzymatic composition with phosphorylation:

Enzymatic conformational changes in phosphorylation are dramatically apparent from the Insulin Receptor Kinase (IRK) structures determined in the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated states.

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